Spark: Custom UDF Example

UDF (User defined functions) and UDAF (User defined aggregate functions) are key components of big data languages such as Pig and Hive. They allow to extend the language constructs to do adhoc processing on distributed dataset. Previously I have blogged about how to write custom UDF/UDAF in Pig (here) and Hive(Part I & II) . In this post I will focus on writing custom UDF in spark. UDF and UDAF is fairly new feature in spark and was just released in Spark 1.5.1. So its still in evolution stage and quite limited on things you can do, especially when trying to write generic UDAFs. I will talk about its current limitations later on. 

As a motivating example assume we are given some student data containing student’s name, subject and score and we want to convert numerical score into ordinal categories based on the following logic:

  • A –> if score >= 80
  • B –> if score >= 60
  • C –> if score >= 35
  • D –> otherwise


Below is the relevant python code if you are using pyspark.

# Generate Random Data
import itertools
import random
students = ['John', 'Mike','Matt']
subjects = ['Math', 'Sci', 'Geography', 'History']
data = []

for (student, subject) in itertools.product(students, subjects):
    data.append((student, subject, random.randint(0, 100)))

# Create Schema Object
from pyspark.sql.types import StructType, StructField, IntegerType, StringType
schema = StructType([
            StructField("student", StringType(), nullable=False),
            StructField("subject", StringType(), nullable=False),
            StructField("score", IntegerType(), nullable=False)

# Create DataFrame 
from pyspark.sql import HiveContext
sqlContext = HiveContext(sc)
rdd = sc.parallelize(data)
df = sqlContext.createDataFrame(rdd, schema)

# Define udf
from pyspark.sql.functions import udf
def scoreToCategory(score):
    if score >= 80: return 'A'
    elif score >= 60: return 'B'
    elif score >= 35: return 'C'
    else: return 'D'

udfScoreToCategory=udf(scoreToCategory, StringType())
df.withColumn("category", udfScoreToCategory("score")).show(10)

Line 2-10 is the basic python stuff. We are generating a random dataset that looks something like this:

student subject score
John Math 13
Mike Sci 45
Mike Geography 65

Next line 12-24 are dealing with constructing the dataframe. The main part of the code is in line 27-34. We first define our function in a normal python way.

Below is scala example of the same:

// Construct Dummy Data
import util.Random
import org.apache.spark.sql.Row
implicit class Crossable[X](xs: Traversable[X]) {
  def cross[Y](ys: Traversable[Y]) = for { x <- xs; y <- ys } yield (x, y)
val students = Seq("John", "Mike","Matt")
val subjects = Seq("Math", "Sci", "Geography", "History")
val random = new Random(1)
val data =(students cross subjects).map{x  =>  Row(x._1, x._2,random.nextInt(100))}.toSeq

// Create Schema Object
import org.apache.spark.sql.types.{StructType, StructField, IntegerType, StringType}
val schema = StructType(Array(
            StructField("student", StringType, nullable=false),
            StructField("subject", StringType, nullable=false),
            StructField("score", IntegerType, nullable=false)

// Create DataFrame 
import org.apache.spark.sql.hive.HiveContext
val rdd = sc.parallelize(data)
val df = sqlContext.createDataFrame(rdd, schema)

// Define udf
import org.apache.spark.sql.functions.udf
def udfScoreToCategory=udf((score: Int) => {
        score match {
        case t if t >= 80 => "A"
        case t if t >= 60 => "B"
        case t if t >= 35 => "C"
        case _ => "D"
df.withColumn("category", udfScoreToCategory(df("score"))).show(10)

About Ritesh Agrawal

I am a applied researcher who enjoys anything related to statistics, large data analysis, data mining, machine learning and data visualization.
This entry was posted in Big Data, Programming and tagged , , , . Bookmark the permalink.

3 Responses to Spark: Custom UDF Example

  1. Ritika Ratnawat says:

    I am getting UDF not defined with this code.

  2. aedwip says:

    Hi Retish

    nice example. I found it really helpful when I was working on 1.5.x

    Have you tried running your python example using python3 and spark-1.6.2? I get the following error on my Mac

    Py4JJavaError: An error occurred while calling
    : java.lang.RuntimeException: java.lang.RuntimeException: Unable to instantiate org.apache.hadoop.hive.ql.metadata.SessionHiveMetaStoreClient

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